July 9, 2017 - Utilization of clean energy resources is desired to prevent further damage to environment. Around 20% of the global energy consumption occurs in the transportation sector. This sector also accounts for one-sixth of worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and a significantly higher (one-third) in the United States. Around one-third of the transportation sector energy consumption moves the cars worldwide, which accounts for significant CO2 emissions. In addition, the number of cars worldwide is expected to double from 0.9 billion in 2016 to 1.8 billion in 2040. Since majority of these cars have internal combustion engines (oil-powered) vehicles (OV), efforts are in place to utilize clean energy resources to prevent further environmental damages. To minimize CO2 emissions due to cars, electrical-powered vehicle (EV) have recently gained traction, and consequently the number of EV cars is expected to grow 100 times from 1 million at present to 100 million in 2040.